Typica is the original type of Arabica coffee introduced from Yemen into Asia in the early 16th century and, after 1720 into the Caribbean and Latin America.
Introduced around 1715 from Yemen into Reunion Island (formerly Bourbon) and subsequently into Latin America and East Africa. Bourbon is quite compact and upright growing with red and yellow fruited Bourbon types and beans of excellent cup quality.
Selection from a natural cross between Sumatra (Typica) and red Bourbon found in Sao Paulo in 1931; it is characterised by vigorous growth and high yield.
Selection from a cross of Caturra and Mundo Novo (also a selection cross between Typica and Red Bourbon, found in Sao Paolo in 1931), made in Brazil in 1949, characterized by compact growth, and higher cup quality than Caturra.
Catucai is a cross between Icatu and Catuai, existing in yellow and red form. It is a hardy variety resistant to leaf rust and characterised by vigorous growth and high productivity. Yellow and red Catucai are small in statue, with red Catucai being slightly taller, and are suitable to areas subjected to moderate water deficit.
Discovered in 1935 in Brazil, Caturra is a higher yielding mutation of Bourbon. Compared to Bourbon, Caturra trees are quite compact and are often considered a dwarf varietal. Caturra is now less prevalent in Brasil and more common to Colombia, Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Cup quality in relation to Bourbon is characterised by bright acidity, low-to-medium body and somewhat reduced sweetness and clarity.
Selection from crosses of Caturra/Catuai and Hibrido de Timor (assumed to have developed from a natural cross between Arabica and Robusta), characterised by compact growth like Caturra and Robusta-like resistance to disease. Cup quality is almost always inferior to that of other varietals, mainly due to the influence of Robusta in the Hibrido de Timor strain.
Selection developed by crossing Robusta and Arabica (Bourbon) followed by backcrossing to Mundo Novo, characterised by increased resistance to leaf rust, high yield and good quality.
LIMU, SIDAMO, YIRGACHEFFE
High quality coffees of mixed heirloom varietals originating from Kefa, Sidamo and Yirga Cheffe (Yirga Cheffe is a subregion of Sidamo) areas of Ethiopia respectively. Names refer to origin rather than distinct cultivars.
Also known as Elephant Beans, Maragogype is a mutation of Typica. It grows well at high altitudes and produces very large beans. It is commonly found in Brazil and Central America.
Pacamara is a hybrid of the Pacas and the Maragogype that is thought to originate from El Salvador. Its plants have large sized beans and tend to be low yielding.
Caturra-like mutant of red Bourbon found in El Salvador in 1909.
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